A photograph’s visual atmosphere is created by lighting, and there are two basic forms of lighting in photography: hard light (which produces a harsh image) and soft light (which produces a soft image). A professional photographer should understand the differences between harsh light and soft light, as well as how to generate each and which one is most appropriate for a particular subject.
What Is Hard Light?
Hard light is a concentrated, typically brilliant source of illumination that creates severe shadows and attracts the viewer’s attention to a specific portion of a photograph.
It is highly distinct and aggressive when working with strong lighting since the transition between the light source and the shadows is so precise. Your subject’s silhouette will throw a prominent and strong shadow if they are drenched in harsh light. Hard light may be thought of as the way things seem on a sunny day when the sun is beaming straight onto an item.
How Do You Create Hard Light?
In order to get hard light, you must set up a single point of light that casts highly clear shadows and gives your photo a high-contrast effect with crisp gradations between light and shade.
Creating harsh light using a light source such as a camera flash is an example of this. Using it on-camera will produce strong shadows, whereas using it off-camera will produce less severe shadows.
What Is Soft Light?
Soft lighting is a form of light that is bright but not overpowering, with few strong shadows and a balanced spectrum. Under soft lighting, the transition between the light and the shadows is more of a gradient and much smoother than it would be in harsh lighting conditions. It is unlikely that your subject’s face will have any shadows when the scene is lighted softly by a soft light. Moreover, if there is a shadow, it does not appear to be as dark as it would be if it were cast in direct sunlight.
Soft light may be thought of as the way things appear on a cloudy or overcast day when the clouds act as a diffuser between the sun and an item. The cloud diffuses the light emitted by the sun, which illuminates the item from all directions, resulting in soft illumination.
How Do You Create Soft Light?
If you want to generate a soft light, place a light on a reflector or via a diffusion screen and bounce it off of it. If you don’t have access to lighting equipment, window light and natural light can be used as soft light sources; however, be sure that the sun isn’t too harsh and shines directly on your subject while shooting outside.
When Should You Use Hard Light vs. Soft Light?
The visual emotions created by hard and soft light are very different. Here’s when you should utilize each of them:
1. Hard light
Your subjects will have more depth, dimension, and complexity as a result of this. The high-contrast characteristic of harsh light generates a strong feeling of drama and lends an edgy, gritty appearance to your photographs. To give their subjects a powerful and serious appearance, photographers employ a harsh light source to illuminate them. It’s also utilized to provide a raw, hard-edged vibe to scenes in films like noir, drama, and action films, among others.
2. Soft light
Soft light is more appealing to the eye than harsh light. It has a more natural appearance and gives your topic a warm, welcoming, and pleasant appearance. It is less necessary to edit photographs taken in soft lighting as opposed to photographs taken in hard lighting. It may be used to smooth wrinkles, conceal acne, and bring out the radiance in someone’s eyes, among other things. Soft light is often employed in portraiture, fashion photography, vacation photography, and food photography, among other types of photography.
Whether you’re just getting started or have aspirations of becoming a professional photographer, you’ll need a lot of practice and a lot of patience to be successful. No one understands this better than famed photographer Annie Leibovitz, who has spent decades honing her skills in the field. As part of her first online lesson, Annie explains how she approaches the task of telling a story through her photos. She also offers advice on how to generate themes, work with subjects, shoot with natural light, and bring photographs to life in post-production.